Concordia Manufacturing, LLC

4 Laurel Avenue, Coventry, RI 02816

T. 401-828-1100, F. 401-823-8361

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Glossary & Terminology


A high strength, high modulus fiber produced from long chain synthetic polyamides.  Kevlar ™ and Nomex ™ are examples of aramids.



The load (or force) required to break or rupture a specimen in a tensile test made according to a specified standard procedure.



The tensile stress at rupture of a specimen (fiber, filament, yarn, cord, or similar structure) expressed as gram-force per denier, grams-force per tex, or newtons per tex. The breaking tenacity is calculated from the breaking load and linear density of the unstrained specimen, or obtained directly from tensile testing machines which can be suitably adjusted to indicate tenacity instead of breaking load for specimens of known linear density.



A construction of thread, yarn, cord, or rope in which each successive twist is in the direction opposite the preceding twists; i.e., and S/Z/S or Z/S/Z construction.



A high-tensile fiber made by heating rayon or polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fibers to appropriate temperatures. Fibers may be 7 to 8 microns in diameter and are more that 90% carbonized.



A piled yarn containing two or more yarns that vary in fiber composition, content, and/or twist level; or plied yarn composed of both filament yarn and spun yarn.



In thermoplastic composites, a flexible prepreg made from two or more continuous multifilament yarns, the filaments of which have been intermixed with each other without adding twist or otherwise disturbing parallel relationship of the combined filaments. Usually consists of a reinforcing yarn, such as carbon fiber or glass, and a thermoplastic matrix yarn such as nylon, PPS, or PEEK fiber.



 Product made by combining two or more dissimilar materials such as fibers and resins to create a product with exceptional structural properties not present in the original materials.



1.A headless tube upon which yarn or thread is wound. 2. Thread or yarn wound into the shape of a hollow cylinder with tapered ends. 3. Filling yarn wound upon a tapered tube (generally paper).



A unit for expressing the linear density of a yarn or filament based on the Tex measurement system (Tex is the weight in grams of 1,000 meters of yarn). 1 Tex = 10 dtex.



Another unit for expressing the linear density of a yarn or filament. It is numerically equal to the weight in grams of 9,000 meters of  material (originally 1 gram of silk fiber was thought to be 9,000 meters in length). In most countries outside the U.S., the denier system has been replaced by the Tex system.



The denier of the individual continuous filaments in a synthetic multifilament yarn. In filament yarns, it is the yarn denier divided by the number of filaments in the yarn bundle.



Usually variation in diameter, or other cross-sectional dimension, along the length of a filament or bundle of filaments. It is caused by malfunction or lack of process control in fiber manufacturing and degrades resulting fabric appearance or performance.



A set of full bobbins produced by one machine (a roving frame, a spinning frame, or a

filament-yarn extrusion machine).



The deformation in the direction of load caused by a tensile force. Elongation is measured in units of length (e.g., millimeters, inches) or calculated as a percentage of the original specimen length. Elongation may be measured at any specified load or at the breaking load.



The physical measurement of stiffness in a material.  A high modulus indicates a stiff material.



The percentage of moisture in a textile material brought into equilibrium with a standard atmosphere after partial drying, calculated as a percentage of the moisture-free weight.



A manufactured fiber in which the fiber forming substance is any long chain synthetic polyamide having recurring amide groups (-NH-CO-) as an integral part of the polymer chain.  Nylon is found in a wide variety of textile products, and melts to form the matrix in thermoplastic composites made from commingled nylon and carbon commingled yarns.



Twisting together two or more single yarns to form, respectively, a plied yarn or cord.



A manufactured fiber in which the fiber-forming substance is any long chain synthetic polymer composed of at least 85% by weight of an ester of dihydric alcohol and terephthalic acid. It has a wide variety of textile applications,  and is also used as a matrix yarn in commingled thermoplastics where it has high chemical resistance and low moisture absorbtion.



A manufactured fiber from polyetheretherketone polymer with high temperature and chemical resistance, thermal stability, abrasion resistance, flame resistance, high stiffness and low density used in composites as a matrix material and in other industrial applications.



A manufactured fiber spun from polyetherimide polymer having high thermal stability, low flame and smoke properties.  Similar to PEEK but lower temperature resistance and impact strength. Used for matrix materials in composites and in other industrial applications.



A fiber with high temperature resistance, chemical resistance, flame retardency, dimensional stability, and low moisture absorption. Used for matrix materials in composites and in other industrial applications.



A low melting point fiber with excellent moisture resistance. Used for matrix materials in composites and in other industrial applications.



 Ready-to-mold, reinforcing material, either fiber, fabric, or mat, that is fully impregnated with resin and in some cases, partially cured. Prepregs are then used by fabricators in laying-up and molding composites after which curing is completed.



1. A unit for expressing linear density, equal to the weight in grams of 1 kilometer of yarn,

filament, fiber, or other textile strand. 2. The system of yarn numbering based on the use of tex units.



The process of crimping, imparting random loops, or otherwise modifying continuous filament yarn to increase cover, resilience, abrasion resistance, warmth, insulation, and moisture absorption or to provide a different surface texture.



The number of turns about its axis per unit of length of a yarn or other textile strand. Twist is expressed as turns per inch (tpi), turns per meter (tpm), or turns per centimeter (tpcm).



The direction of twist in yarns and other textile strands is indicated by the capital letters S and Z. Yarn

has S-twist if when it is held vertically, the spirals around its central axis slope in the same direction as the middle portion of the letter S, and Z-twist if they slope in the same direction as the middle portion

of the letter Z. When two or more yarns, either single or plied, are twisted together, the letters S and Z are used in a similar manner to indicate the direction of the last twist inserted.



Winding is the process of transferring yarn or thread from one type of package to another to facilitate subsequent processing.


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